Carto Project

Carto Project Survey March 1997

Survey Summary

1. Are you presently involved with a visualization or computer graphics project that requires the use of digital maps (cartography) or geographic information systems (spatial) data sets ?

No 3

Yes 23

Please provide the name of that project and briefly explain its scope:

Comment 1: ArcView-XGobi link: for exploring multivariate spatial data using GIS for map overlays and data storage, and XGobi for its graphical tools for multivariate data.

Comment 2: "Visualization Strategies for High-Dimensional Dynamical Spatial Data and Processes." Cooperating with three other Westfalian university departments, the Institute of Geoinformatics, Munster, works in a research project named "Bits Mapped to Pictures" (BMP). The aim is the development of visualization strategies for structuring, mapping and exploring high-dimensional, dynamical and spatial data, for example generated by the mesoscale atmospheric model S_KIMO (Institute of Geoinformatics) (BERNARD AND STREIT 1996). The strategies will be transferred into specific techniques and linked to already existing software modules. Simultaneously, the generated tools will be coupled with a geo-graphical information system (GIS).

Comment 3: 'Methodologies and Tools for Large Scale, Real World, Virtual Environments: A Prototype to Enhance the Understanding of Historic Newcastle upon Tyne'; a project to create an accurate 3D town from historic imagery (photographs and sketches) and mapping.

Comment 4: There are currently a number of projects here exploring techniques to deliver geographic data over the WWW, for example: ACTMAP - cadastral data for land information systems.

Comment 5: Liaison between FGDC and NIMA's IPT to identify technical issues common to both the civilian and military/intelligence mapping communities and coordinate solutions.

Comment 6: We have 4-5 visualization projects funded by DoD and NSF, which involve visualization of atmospheric and oceanographic datasets. The interest is usually in the air or ocean data, but the geographic content is very important.

Comment 7: Geographic plume analysis-- to investigate variability in exposure to environmental contamination.

Comment 8: Ongoing GIS/Visualization Project (GISVIS) that visualizes 2-D and 3-D spatial data sets within standard VIS packages (such as AVS) and primarily, uses VRML to distribute such visualizations over the Web.

Comment 9: Multimedia supported cartography in a planning information system. PhD research. Attempt to combine different cartographic variables into sets that can be used as multimedia "variables," specifically for use in a planning information system.

Comment 10: "End-to-End Problems in EOSDIS", a NASA-sponsored project that looks at alternative architectures for NASA's EOSDIS program.

Comment 11: Visualization in support of development and applications for simulation of landscape processes and optimization of land use design.

Comment 12: Queenscliff Multimedia VideoAtlas prototype. Integrating a multimedia interface to GIS.

Comment 13: All of my research involves GIS, and/or visualization. Right now, the only project I'm getting $ for is: Quantification of Uncertainty in Spatial Data for Ecological Applications, National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NSF).

Comment 14: Development of visualization tools/systems, that create maps, visualize/analyze geographic and other spatial data from diverse sources, etc., and data models, structures and formats for storage, access, application building and distribution of spatial data plus applications thereof to problems in atmospheric and space sciences.

Comment 15: Visualization of 200 years of urban growth of Baltimore-Washington area. The visualization work is part of the Baltimore-Washington Regional Collaboratory which is putting together a historical GIS for the Baltimore-Washington region.

Comment 16: Models-3: EPA's Third generation air-quality modeling and decision support system. This is part of EPA's HPCC initiative. The software is intended to model multi-scale (urban to global), multi-pollutant (60+ chemical species), cross-media (air/land/water), ecosystem and global tropospheric chemistry. My role is to implement the visualization functionality. This is done using a combination of existing applications - primarily Vis5d and PAVE - and by building a custom application using IBM Data Explorer and public-domain libraries such as USGS Proj Library and NetCDF.

Comment 17: Two small projects (which well be combined into one):

"Methods for Interactive Mapping and GIS via the WWW,"-evaluating different methods for providing interactive mapping and GIS (ESRI MapObjects and Java) via www sites.

"Community Networks, the Internet, and www in 'Marginal' Places: The Case of Clinton County, Pennsylvania"-looking at the impact of www in economically/socially marginalized communities; will eventually focus on provision of spatial info, mapping, viz, and GIS issues in this context.

... and my dissertation research (under revision): "Making of a Marginal Landscape"-using hypermedia as a means of visualizing landscape change over time and through space.

Comment 18: The Chesapeake Bay Virtual Envirnoment (funded by NSF) description below excerpted from the proposal, funded in 1996. We propose to develop the Chesapeake Bay Virtual Environment (CBVE), which will fuse 3D visualizations of numerically generated output, observations, and other data products into a large- scale, interactive virtual world. Our modeling framework will incorporate runtime computational steering, interactive visualization, data ensonification and wide area information dissemination capabilities. CBVE will support technology transfer, provide mentoring in coastal ecosystem science and serve as a medium for information exchange by taking advantage of Internet-based media and complete World-Wide Web functionality. The use of a virtual world as a new paradigm of information exchange coupled with a World-Wide Web-based information architecture will allow multidisciplinary, multi-institutional groups of scientists, educators, students and administrators to apply emerging high performance computing and communications technologies to the study of the country's largest estuarine ecosystem.

Comment 19: The SSEC Visualization project, which develops the Vis5D and VisAD systems.

Comment 20: REINAS -- realtime environmental information network and analysis system

Comment 21: "Visualization strategies of multi-dimensional and dynamic data sets" is a project funded by the German Government (Forschungsministerium Nordrhein-Westfalen). It focuses on visualization solutions for the geosciences. The project funds four research teams at three Universities (Paderborn, Muenster, Bielefeld).

Comment 22: Title: Dynamic images of thematic spatial data The goal is to produce dynamic images of spatially related or statistical data. The images should be dynamic in two ways: a. the image (the objects in it) itself can be interactivly moved / turned etc. and b. the image shows dynamic data (fire spread or glaciers melting etc.). You can get more details (in german only...) at:

Comment 23: Linkage among ArcView (GIS), XGobi (Dynamic Statistical Graphics Program) and XploRe (Statistical Package). Scope: Statistical analysis of spatial data sets in one joint environment.

Comment 24: a. An Integrated Approach for Effective Representation and Analysis of Space/Time Environmental Data - sponsor: EPA (I am co-PI). The growing complexity of environmental analysis and policy decisions demands not only introduction of high performance computing technologies, but innovative approaches to their application. Environmental risk assessments and decision support for ecosystem management requires the integration and analysis of large volumes of data derived from both models and direct measurement in the environment. These data exist at multiple scales and vary both spatially and temporally. Past research directed toward developing approaches to dealing with the volume and complexity of environmental data has often focused on isolated issues associated with data structures, visual display, query protocols, computer architecture, and others. What is needed, in contrast to such a fragmented approach, is an integrated vision for a data analysis and problem solving environment that can cope with spatiotemporal data and multiscale analysis.

The objective of the proposed research is to design, implement, and assess a prototype that meets these needs. Specifically, we propose developing a prototype Temporal Geographic Information System with integrated multivariate spatiotemporal visualization capabilities. The prototype will include: (1a) a fully-integrated multi-representational, multi-scale database model which integrates object-based, location based and time-based representations of environmental data in a tightly coupled manner, (1b) implemented in a flexible and highly efficient manner that employs parallelism for storage, retrieval and manipulation to maximum advantage, (2) including a flexible database query protocol linked to a graphical user interface that facilitates multi dimensional and multi-scale query and analysis, and (3) a multi-dimensional, multi-scale visualization capability which facilitates exploratory and traditional analysis of time sequences of three-dimensional data.

b. Design and Evaluation of a Computerized Dynamic Mapping System Interface - sponsor: CDC, National Center for Health Statistics (I am PI). The project will (1) design alternative methods for displaying dynamic maps of death rate and risk factor data in a user-friendly computer system, (2) test these proposed designs in an experiment where users attempt to draw inferences about changing death rate patterns to draw inferences about changing death rate patterns and their relationship to risk factor patterns.

c. Visualizing Earth - sponsor: NSF (I am a participating scientist). "Visualizing Earth" will address four primary goals: Promote fundamental research in cognition and visualization; adapt existing GIS technology and data sources for ease of use in schools; develop model curriculum at the middle school level to support cognition; and visualization research to support implementation of national education standards in science, math and geography.

2. What tools are you currently using to access digital maps and geographic data?

Comment 1: ArcView 3.0, Arc/Info

Comment 2: ARC/INFO, ArcView, PcMap, Intergraph, ALK-GIAP, Grass, Erdas Imagine, AVS, Khoros, Vis5d, MAM/VRS.

Comment 3: Mainly creating own software tools but also will be using commercial packages, such as AutoCAD, Superscape, and general GIS systems (ArcView, AutoCAD Map).

Comment 4: Netscape, also convert DEM to obj's to look at in Alias Wavefront Modeler.

Comment 5: ArcView 3.0.

Comment 6: gdsDataManager - spatial database from Convergent.

Comment 7: We usually use flat files supplied by the Navy and Army.

Comment 8: GIS software (e.g. Maptitude; TransCad).

Comment 9: GIS: ArcView, ARC/INFO.

Comment 10: Arc/Info GIS, MS-IE, Microstation, ArcView.

Comment 11: The Web, Illustra object-relational DBMS, and visualization tools such as IBM Data Explorer and VTK.

Comment 12: GRASS4.2 (geogr. resources analysis support system).

Comment 13: Macromedia Director (own program), Netscape (global data searching).

Comment 14: GRASS, Arcview 3.0, Idrisi for Windows.

Comment 15: www and other internet-based resources for access to data, as well as purchased data, typically on CD-ROM, as well as in-house applications, some of which run standalone on a workstation or PC, and others which are www-based.

Comment 16: Arc/Info, PCI.

Comment 17: We obtain polyline and topographic data from McIDAS and ARCinfo and satellite images from GOES/McIDAS.

Comment 18: mac/pc based (arc view, and graphics packages - freehand, photoshop, etc.) and unix based (arcview, arc info, and starting to look at map objects).

Comment 19: Standard Internet retrieval tools when necessary.

Comment 20: Vis5D, VisAD, and whatever other tools are appropriate

for particular data sources.

Comment 21: USGS, gctpc -- map projection software.

Comment 22: The Small World Systems (SWS) GIS. We have provided for input/output channels between the SWS GIS and Open Inventor.

Comment 23: Arc/Info, ArcView, MapII, or any other TINs or GRIDs in the form of an ASCII-text-file.

Comment 24: ArcView 2.1 & 3.0.

Comment 25: A wide variety ranging from graphic design software (freehand, illustrator, photoshop), through multimedia software (macromedia Director), and GIS software (ArcView, ArcInfo), and www interface software (Tcl/TK, Java) to visualization toolkits (IDL, AVS). In addition, in project "a" above, we are designing and building our own spatio temporal GIS (called Tempest).

3. Is Internet connectivity required for your data-gathering efforts?

No 9

Yes 16

No Response 1

Please elaborate:

Comment 1: Getting data sets from the EPA, obtaining other data from similar geographic regions that can be used to understand environmental condition.

Comment 2: Yes, although not required for data gathering as such has been used for information gathering about related projects by the www and email.

Comment 3: For ease of access.

Comment 4: No, we assume the geographic databases already exist and are available to access via WWW.

Comment 5: Promoting the NSDI and participation by producers of spatial datasets as nodes on the NSDI Clearinghouse and managing the first revision of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM).

Comment 6: One of our projects involves MEL, the Master Environmental Library, which is a web-based, distributed database. To obtain the data, we need internet connectivity.

Comment 7: : We download information from the Toxic Release Inventory.

Comment 8: Much spatial data is provided over the Internet for no charge. Important consideration for using sample data for research purposes.

Comment 9: No, it's convenient, but not required. The user tests will make use of internet connectivity though.

Comment 10: Today, isn't this a moot question?

Comment 11: Global data searching and links to my package.

Comment 12: Depending on the data source, www-based systems are the primary data providers.

Comment 13: This project is being done by collaborators in Maryland, Virginia, and California and uses the internet to exchange data.

Comment 14: It was not required for data gathering as this was done using the above mentioned programs, however it has proved very useful for verifying our projection calculations. In particular, the TIGER Map Service interactive on-line map browser ( was invaluable.

Comment 15: Internet/www used in the research projects listed above.

Comment 16: ftp or the like required.

Comment 17: Obtain different world vector data sets and terrain data sets.

Comment 18: we are not part of the data gathering effort, rather only of the data visualization effort. Data gathering is part of SWS.

Comment 19: Not required but very helpful to get data and provide software to others

Comment 20: We use the internet to access on-line georeferrenced databases dealing with census statistics and enumeration unit boundaries (from Census and State agencies), health statistics (from CDC), topography and other topographic information (from USGS), environmental data (from NASA, EPA, US Department of Forestry, etc.), and many other sources.

4. Do you use World Wide Web resources for data-gathering and geographic visualization?

No 7

Yes 20

Please elaborate:

Comment 1:

Comment 2: Yes, it is aimed that the final model will be able to be displayed across the www in a VRML (or similar) 3D form allowing a large access group.

Comment 3: For ease of access.

Comment 4: Yes, we have developed a number of Java applets to access the databases which deliver data in DWF format - defined by Autodesk.

Comment 5: Many prototypes and internal research and development projects at The MITRE Corporation in which I am involved.

Comment 6: (No) We are moving in that direction, though.

Comment 7: The Web is the primary online conduit for receiving and distributing data, as well as to provide the results of current work to the public.

Comment 8: Software updates and examples are taken from several sites. We leverage www developments to provide easy access to data for our end-users.

Comment 9: Global data searching and links to my package.

Comment 10: Web searching and demonstrating results.

Comment 11: More for data gathering, which range from simple ftp access to utilize of web-based interfaces, which are typically form-based. For the most part, I don't use www-based systems for the actual visualization, because of speed and capabilities. Although, there are a few exceptions, for the most part I would download the data here and do the visualizations myself. It is faster that way, and I have much greater capability. I am, however, working on methods to make of these local-type capabilities more usable via web-based interfaces.

Comment 12: We have animations and data sets available for downloading on the WWW.

Comment 13: May use in research projects above; currently use the www for data gathering in courses (student projects).

Comment 14: We have and continue to actively investigate ways to exploit the Internet and www in Vis5D and VisAD.

Comment 15: We are involved in design and implementation of visualization software and some of it is WWW-based. We currently have interactive visualization tools posted on the www that use Tcl/TK and Macromedia Director and are currently exploring use of VRML for depicting geo-referenced data. Our Deasy GeoGraphics Laboratory is currently designing a simple on-line GIS written in Java.

5. Have you used VRML or any other Web 3D viewer to examine geographic data sets?

No 9

Yes 18

Please elaborate:

Comment 1:

Comment 2: . . . Have experimented with VRML (1 and 2) and looked at browsers such as Cosmo, Live3D, Viscape, ...

Comment 3: Use VRML browser on SGI and Mac

Comment 4: Yes, but purely experimental at this stage (VRML) we need to investigate further.

Comment 5: We have used VRML and Vis5D.

Comment 6: I have visited the San Diego Supercomputer Center's site and they use VRML in their San Diego Bay project.

Comment 7: See the GISVIS work ( . Have used tools to convert ARC/INFO data sets into VRML, as well as generate spherical models of portions of the Earth's surface from various sources.

Comment 8: VRML and experimental Superscape software. Testing the viability of 3d symbols on a 2d map underground.

Comment 9: Only played around with VRML. In our oppinion, VRML hasn't "arrived" yet.

Comment 10: It was too slow, allows to view only small data sets and the viewer was very unpratctical to use - not really designed for geographic data.

Comment 11: Only cursory investigations.

Comment 12: Looking over other people's work.

Comment 13: Examine terrain and other geographic data in VRML provided by others. Create VRML-representations of my own work for www distribution.

Comment 14: No, just 2D browsers such as TIGER.

Comment 15: We have a VRML world of the Ches. Bay populated with slices of data taken from high density files of physical variable in the Bay. Active growth of the site is ongoing.

Comment 16: Collaborators in Brazil are looking into ways to use VRML with Vis5D.

Comment 17: Classroom setting. View terrain data.

Comment 18: This is our next step. VRML 2.0 was not available to us when we started our efforts, so Open Inventor was the best guess at that time.

Comment 19: So far: DTMs generated form GRIDs or TINs, combined with point-data or area data. Done in VRML 1.0. I've just started using VRML 2.0 for the animations.

Comment 20: In addition to the note above about work on design of our own implementations, the forthcoming special print/electronic issue of Computers & Geosciences that I am co-editing with Menno-Jan Kraak includes at least 3 papers having georeferenced VRML (see our Commission www site -- under working papers, the papers by Mitas, et al; Neves, et., al., Fairbairn & Parsely).

6. Please name the computer graphics or visualization tools that work best for your geographic visualization efforts.

Comment 1: XGobi, ArcView

Comment 2: AVS, MAM/VRS

Comment 3: It is hoped the final model will also be in a commercial VR package, as of yet this has not been finalised but Superscape is a possibility.

Comment 4: Our own Java applets for viewing 2D vector data.

Comment 5: It depends on our application. Sometimes our task is to find and develop new tools.

Comment 6: Intergraph MGE, TransCad, Maptitude.

Comment 7: Data preparation - user developed programs and ARC/INFO Visualization tools - user developed code, vi editor(!!)

Comment 8: Corel package, ASCII editors and MS-Frontpage. DXF to VRML converters.

Comment 9: We have used IBM DataExplorer, VTK from GE Labs, and proprietary software.

Comment 10: SG3d and NVIZ programs for GRASS.

Comment 11: Macromedia Director.

Comment 12: The only tools I've used were display tools in GRASS and movie generation software available on SG workstations.

Comment 13: IBM Visualization Data Explorer.

Comment 14: We use a combination of custom-developed software, SGI software and PCI.

Comment 15: The USGS Proj Library provided the variety of cartographic projections required by our project. McIDAS-format was used for the map and topography files since it is binary and quite small (and the native format for one of the visualization applications used - Vis5d). Data Explorer is used for visualizing the air-quality data together with geographic annotations.

Comment 16: We use Vis5d for non-VRML files.

Comment 17: Vis5D and VisAD.

Comment 18: We're developing our own software under the REINAS project. Earlier version is called spray (see site below). Current version is called slug (still working on the site).

Comment 19: For buildings, structures etc we use Open Inventor. For multi-dimensional, static visualizations we use additionally a home made system that provides GLYPHS (called atVisual). atVisual is NOT connected to any GIS. Quick Time VR is nice, but VRML wins the race... I'm using Live3d as a Netscape plug-in on the Macintosh (VRML 1.0) and CosmoPlayer on the PC and SGI/Unix. To generate the VRML, I'm writing my own PERL-scripts. A professional tool for my specific needs does not exist.

Comment 20: ArcView 2.1 & 3.0.

Comment 21: As noted above, we use a wide range.

7. Do you have a need for integrated geographic data mining and visualization tools?

No 7

Yes 19

Don't Know 1

What functionality would you like these tools to have?

Comment 1: Interested in developing tools.

Comment 2: Direct database connectivity.

Comment 3: conflation, generalization, densification and vertical as well as horizontal integration capabilities, coordinate transformation, edgematching, feature extraction, rubbersheeting, dissolve and simplification.

Comment 4: Open structure, plugin enabled, self learning, examples and tutor, multi-user.

Comment 5: Tools must be usable by working scientists, in other words, they must not require any programming (e.g. SQL or data flow visualization networks), and they must be map-oriented. Users should also communicate with tools and systems using their own discipline-specific lexicon.

Comment 6: Windows / Windows NT functionality. User manipulation and customisation.

Comment 7: Integration of analysis, visualization, data archiving, DBMS, and data models, which relate to some of my own work.

Comment 8: Don't know what is meant by geographic data mining.

Comment 9: Presently, the geographic information is pre-processed and used to annotate the visualizations. Interactive access and control of geographic information from within the visualization tool would allow more flexibility. Apparently this exists to an extent, for example between ARCinfo and Data Explorer, however the cost may be prohibitive.

Comment 10: For now, I (like most people) use a diversity of software for viz purposes; it is difficult (given the rapid changes in available data, technology as well as research topics) that one set of tools would be adequate.

Comment 11: Search by content of metadata-based information. Visualization on automatic basis of returned data.

Comment 12: That is the fundamental question, isn't it? See my papers for the answer (bibliography at the URL in my sig).

Comment 13: One of the things we've added is a line-of-sight tool for evaluating positions for antenna placements; others include visualization of environmental (e.g. oceanographics and metereological) data sets over registered geography.

Comment 14: We (or better: our application people) need the full (and expandable) GIS functionality and a full (and expandable) VIS functionality. It is very important that changes in the VIS domain or in the GIS domain are (e.g. modifying an object or its location) also applied to the corresponding other domain.

Comment 15: Spatio-temporal query, geographic and temporal brushing, linking, focusing multivariate display, animation . . . and many others -- see papers by Howard and Fauerbach, et al, and the Commission www site for other ideas as well as the paper by Howard and MacEachren in the journal Cartography and Geographic Information Systems.

8. Have you used any specific data formats, or are there specific data formats you plan to use in the future?

No 11

Yes 16

Please describe those requirements:

Comment 1: For the WEB we plan to use VRML2, for standalone-applications we will use a object-oriented dataformat specific for the "modelling and animation machine / virtualrendering system" MAM/VRS.

Comment 2: Yes, I have used NTF and DXF maping data. Also am now working with the DirectX programming libraries from microsoft so I am using their Direct3D file format as well.

Comment 3: For 2D - DWF,SVF; For 3D - VRML.

Comment 4: DLG-F, DEM, VPF, CIB, DTED Level 2.

Comment 5: We are forced to use GRIB sometimes, but don't like it.

Comment 6: We use numerous formats. The Spatial Data Transfer Standard is designed to help with this problem. We specifically work with U.S. Census TIGER files a great deal.

Comment 7: ESRI product compatibility, as well as compatibility with relational databases. The future will no doubt see more object-oriented spatial databases. VRML seems to be the 3-D visualization standard for the Web, though that remains to be seen. If another standard arises and wins out in the market, then that will likely be used.

Comment 8: No. I try to stick with 'standard' formats, but can think of added functionality with some formats (GIF89a with build in hotspots for example).

Comment 9: HDF, netCDF, and various satellite data products (e.g. AVHRR SST and TOPEX).

Comment 10: Standard is needed, so that seamless access to data stored under different systems is available (not only GIS but also statistical software etc.).

Comment 11: Formats for GRASS and Arc/Info.

Comment 12: Have developed some, and use others such as CDF, netCDF, HDF, dx. Concerned about propagation of additional structures that are too specialized (e.g., geoTIFF, VRML), where implementations based upon more generalized data models are more effective in describing data within different classes and enable data fusion.

Comment 13: McIDAS format is used because it is small. ARCinfo data is converted to McIDAS format.

Comment 14: We use .v5d files into Vis5d.

Comment 15: We use a variety of formats - mostly formats used to store output from atmosphere and ocean models.

Comment 16: Too many data formats; will focus on hdf/netcdf.

Comment 17: We have chosen to work with the Small World GIS because this GIS is object oriented and modifiable. However, SWS and OpenInventor are only place holders for us in order to better understand -- and hopefully improve -- the complexity of connecting a GIS and a VIS system. Therefore the data formats are not of primary importance.

Comment 18: These are literally in the dozens. A few key examples are DTM and DLG from the USGS, TIGER from the Census, Landsat and Thematic Mapper from NASA, and our own in house Triad space-time-attribute data structure.

9. Do your spatial data have specific data resolution requirements?

No 14

Yes 13

Please list those requirements:

Comment 1: We want to work in and with different level of details (LOD) and level of interest (LOI).

Comment 2: Yes, we are looking to get the model as accurate as is possible with the available data. In the department we deal with mainly large scale mapping applications ie, 1:1250

Comment 3: Civilian mapping requirements and military/intelligence requirements span from highest to low resolution requirements.

Comment 4: Once again, application dependent. Recently we have been asked to "drape" a 6000x6000 topographic map over an adjacent land area (model of Los Angeles basin).

Comment 5: Level of resolution goes to the size of visualizations (key factor in distribution over the Internet). The nature of any analyses performed, of course, mandates different requirements for the data used.

Comment 6: Scale 1:1000/1:10.000.

Comment 7: Must be able to visualize satellite data at its fullest resolution.

Comment 8: We need wide range of resolutions from hundreds of meters down to 1m grid cell size.

Comment 9: Appropriate standards should provide interface in a resolution-independent fashion. Scalability to accommodate high-resolution data should be transparent at the user/interface level.

Comment 10: Yes. Depending on the scale of the air-quality model, e.g., 1km urban scale grid cells to 80km regional scale grid cells the used can select various resolution maps of nations, states, counties, rivers, roads, etc.

Comment 11: As fine a resolution as possible. Our numerical models are often at the 100m resolution level, sometimes the 1Km level as well.

Comment 12: Determined by user community; e.g., 1km resolution for some regional scale weather models.

Comment 13: For the DTMs, the limit is not on the GIS-side, but given by the VRML-browsers. Requirements may vary a lot with each image.

Comment 14: This issue is much too complicated for a short answer. All I can think of to say is that mapping always has specific resolution requirements for display at specific scales and that the Modifiable Areal Unit problem is an active research topic within geography

10. Are you aware of current efforts to create international geographic spatial data standards?

No 2

Yes 25

11. Have you contributed, or are you contributing to these standards efforts?

No 24

Yes 3

In what capacity?

Comment 1: No, not personally but other members of the department are and (they) regularly keep us up to date on progress.

Comment 2: I think VRML is a path to be followed, but it could use a lot of enhancements: (a) more nodes with even more possibilities for geographical data. ElevationGrid is nice, but won't do; and (b) GIS systems should start integrating VRML (like the next version of Arc/Info) and have the ability to generate VRML.

Comment 2: No, but we are members of OGC.

Comment 3: The first revision of the Content Standard for Digitial Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM) is the first draft of ISO TC 211's metadata standard being drafted for the Australia meeting, also I represent The MITRE Corporation on the FGDC Standards Working Group and attend the Open GIS Consortium Technical Committee meetings for MITRE.

Comment 4: Worked with Mike Goodchild on writing standards for representing spatial data uncertainty for OGIS (Mike did most of the work).

Comment 5: It is beyond the scope of my responsibilities and expertise. But I look forward to such standardized file formats and associated APIs provided they are free, portable, simple and performance-oriented and, where possible, build upon existing standards (e.g., IEEE, XDR, NetCDF).

Comment 6: Personally in only an indirect way by responding to requests for input on some of the US Spatial Data Transfer Standard efforts -- I also regularly teach about these efforts. menu

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Last Updated:
March 29, 1997