Analog Film and Video

 

Analog Video

NTSC Video

Formats:

Film Format Film ratio Resolution (Pixels) Resolution (Lines)
Full Aperture 24.57 mm 1.32:1 4096 3112
Academy 21.94 1.33;1 3656 2664
Cinemascope 21.94 1.18:1 3656 3112
VistaVision 24.57 1.50: 1 6144 4096

 

Video Format Lines X Pixels Interlace Color Sampling Bits Fields/sec
NTSC (525 System) 485 x 720 2:1 4 2 2 8 59.94
PAL (625 System) 575 x 720 2:1 4 2 2 8 50
SECAM 575 x 720 2:1 4 2 2 8 50
HDTV Systems          
1125 System 1035 x 1920 (1.85:1) 2:1 4 2 2 8 60
1080 System 1080 x 1920 (1.78) 2:1 4 2 2 8 60
1250 System 1152 x 1920 (1.67:1) 2:1 4 2 2 8 60

NTSC (National Television Standards Committee) is used in North and Central America, and Japan.

PAL (Phase Alternation Line) is used in Europe, Middle east, East Africa, and South America.

SECAM (Systeme Electronique pour Couleur avec Memoire) is a PAL variant used in France and Russia.

Video Standards

  VHS/8mm SVHS/Hi-8 Laserdisc BetaSP
Color Composite Y/C Composite Component
Lines of Resolution 240 400 240 360
Signal Bandwidth 2.5 MHz 4.5 MHz 4.5 MHz 7.5MHz

Analog Video does not use the RGB color model but instead the YUV (Y = Luminance, U = Hue, and V = Saturation) model. This is very similar to the HSV color model. This ensured compatibility between older black and white television sets (which only use the Y value that describes an intensity for each pixel between black and white) and color models which require the color information (Hue and Saturation). This NTSC standard was established in 1953.

The original analog signal is acquired, via a camera, as an RGB signal. For NTSC encoding this is changed into three components: Yellow, Red-Yellow, and Blue-Yellow. These are the BetaSP Components. S-Video (SVHS and Hi-8) combines the different components into one composite signal. This combination of the three signals into one causes a loss of quality.


Digital Video Main Page
HyperGraph Home page.

Last changed July 08, 1999, G. Scott Owen, owen@siggraph.org