Optimizing Video for CD-ROM
by Darren Giles, Terran Interactive
Take advantage of the newest technologies and techniques in CD-ROM video to deliver the
best possible results in today's market. We will examine the factors that affect digital
video quality, and discuss techniques to achieve optimal results.
The session is organized into three sections:
The focus of the discussion is on:
- getting the best quality
- efficient workflow
- market considerations
The Digital Video Production Process
There is no single "magic step" that will produce optimal CD-ROM video. Care must
be exercised at every step in the process. Many of the techniques used in traditional video
production are still appropriate. However, there are some special precautions that are
important when producing compressed digital video instead of videotape.
Creating source video
One of the most common myths is "It's going to be compressed and lose quality anyway,
so why should I worry about the original quality?" The truth is that low-quality,
noisy source material is harder to compress. If the codec is throwing away valuable bytes
in an attempt to reproduce excess graininess or static, it won't have as many left to
reproduce your actual content.
In general, the goal is to keep as many pixels as possible identical across frames. So...
- Use high-quality equipment. Hi 8 is okay for many applications, but Beta
SP is worth using if you can.
- As always, avoid generation loss.
- At a minimum, work from the master tapes rather than a second- or
- For high-end productions, you might consider recording direct-to-disk:
send the signal directly to your capture card, rather than to videotape.
- DV Camera bypasses the "record, then digitize" step
completely, and thus has no generation loss.
- Complex textures (leaves, grass, running water, etc.) are challenging to
spatial compression. Worse yet, tiny detail changing in every frame makes temporal
compression break down.
- Zooms and pans cause every pixel to change in every frame. This is
something to be generally avoided. Some codecs, including MPEG and Sorenson Video,
minimize the problem with a technique called "motion compensation".
- Use a tripod.
- Light the scene well. You'll be surprised how much difference this makes.
You'll lose some quality when you digitize your videotape (unless you're using direct-to-disk,
or a DV camera). Steps to minimize the loss:
- Use a high-quality capture card.
- Use a high-quality hard drive: high transfer rates, AV drive to avoid
"hiccups", with a good high-end SCSI card.
- Capture at the maximum possible data rate.
- Capture at twice the resolution you're planning to use, if possible. This
allows a high-quality downscale later, which will sharpen the picture and reduce noise.
- Always capture at 30fps, even if you want to deliver at 10fps. This gives
you flexibility if your spec ends up changing to 12fps at the last minute, or if you
need variable frame rates.
The goal is to avoid making the video too hard to compress. The main things to be careful
of are the frequency and type of your transitions:
- "MTV-style" material, with rapid scene changes, are hard to
compress; they force a whole lot of keyframes.
- Hard cuts are the easiest on codecs.
- Fades and dissolves are the hardest (every pixel changes in every frame).
It's obvious the other steps are important, but it's surprising how many people stop paying
attention when it comes to the compression step. Perhaps this is because of a belief that
there's nothing you can do to retain quality at this step. Obviously, I disagree.
The remainder of this presentation will focus on video compression technologies and
There's a lot of confusion over what a multimedia architecture is. This results in a host
of incorrect beliefs, such as "QuickTime is Cinepak" and "You need Video for
Windows to play .AVI files."
A multimedia architecture is not just a single codec or a single file format. It is a
software system which provides for one or more of the following:
Many architectures provide for a range of media types, from the omnipresent audio and video
to things like MIDI, still images, sprites, text, and even virtual reality elements
(panoramas and objects).
What's out there?
As we're fond of saying, "the great thing about standards is that there are so many to
choose from." In an attempt to get some real-world data, I analyzed 54 multimedia
CD-ROM titles from the local software store. The results should be taken with the caution
due a non-scientific survey, but they echo findings reported elsewhere.
(Note: For more information, please see the article
"Video Technologies in Use
by Consumer CD-ROM Titles.")
There are several useful findings. QuickTime is by far the dominant architecture for
consumer CD-ROM, with more than 50% of the titles. The now-discontinued Video for Windows
comes in second.
Smacker is a proprietary architecture optimized for 8-bit video playback which works well
even on 486's. Its popularity illustrates the need in the marketplace for a good low-end
Two technologies that tied for last place may come as a surprise: ActiveMovie/DirectShow
and MPEG. The former has not yet caught on among title developers, in part due to its lack
of maturity (DirectShow, which replaces ActiveMovie, has only recently become available).
The latter is worth a little examination.
Why not MPEG?
Listening to many people in the video field, you would believe that MPEG is the holy grail
of digital video. Why, then, is it nearly impossible to find consumer titles which use it?
There are several reasons; primary among them are high decode requirements and narrow
MPEG playback used to require dedicated hardware, which never caught on as hoped. Most of
the newest computers are now able to play MPEG in software, which seems like it should
solve the problem. However, it is not generally acceptable to release a title which is
only usable on computers bought in the last few months. Depending on the application, it
is typical to specify that it supports computers sold 2-4 years ago.
Corporate or university environments may have a homogenous installed base, and in some
cases this solves the problem. However, it's surprisingly common to find corporate
environments where the standard is still a 486. And there is currently a trend of
sub-$1000 student computers which are half as fast as the state-of-the-art.
Another issue with MPEG is its roots as a broadcast/consumer electronics standard. It was
not designed as a rich multimedia format, and thus does not allow for the range of media
types present in several other architectures. Similarly, its high playback requirements
mean that the CPU doesn't have time to do anything other than sound and video. This is a
problem for applications which require interactivity, additional media types, or anything
other than "sit back and watch video play."
There are some serious licensing issues with MPEG. A consortium of MPEG-2 patent holders is
requiring from $0.04 to $0.40 per unit for any title which uses this technology. MPEG-1
licensing is not quite as clear. Sizable or unknown per-unit fees are a serious problem
with widely distributed titles.
And, finally, I'd like to dispel a few MPEG myths:
- "MPEG is the best solution." For some applications, MPEG is
certainly the best choice - but there is no one universal "best solution."
- "MPEG cameras are the perfect solution." See above. For some
quick & dirty applications, these are great. But do you really want to distribute
video "as-is" without cropping, editing, etc.? Additionally, off-line MPEG
techniques are more powerful than the one-pass approach used in-camera.
- "DVD requires MPEG." DVD-Video does. But DVD-ROM is just like
a big CD-ROM. You can put anything you want on it. For many DVD-ROM applications,
MPEG-2 is the best choice. But for others (especially those which require substantial
interactivity or a large amount of video), there are better options.
Okay, so why is QuickTime such a popular choice among title developers? In general, it's
the most mature technology around. In the six years since its first release, QuickTime has
continued to dominate in several critical areas:
- Cross-platform delivery. QuickTime titles play well on both Windows and
MacOS. Titles released years ago still work fine. The upcoming 3.0 release brings
parity to both Mac and Windows.
- Streamlined development. The fact that QuickTime covers the entire
production process, from capture through editing to final playback, streamlines title
- Wide range of application. QuickTime is a standard in broadcast, CD-ROM,
presentations, and the Internet.
- Wide range of available tools.
- Wide range of media supported: video, audio, stills, text, MIDI, 3D, VR
(objects and panoramas) today. Coming in QT3: vector graphics, and real-time effects.
- Wide range of codecs. And more coming soon!
The remainder of this presentation will focus on QuickTime. However, much of the
information is equally applicable to other architectures.
A codec (short for "compressor/decompressor") is one of the most important
components of a digital video architecture. It is responsible for cramming a huge amount of
raw data into a relatively tiny amount of space.
For example, uncompressed NTSC video is over 20 megabytes per second (MBps). Even at the
quarter-screen (320x240) size commonly used in multimedia titles, it's more than 5 MBps.
Without some form of compression, a CD-ROM could only store a rather disappointing 2
minutes of video! By compressing to 100 kilobytes/sec (KBps) with the Sorenson codec,
however, the same CD could easily hold over 100 minutes.
To put it another way, you'd need to shrink the image down to about 40x30 pixels to get the
same 100 minutes to fit on the CD without compression:
100 KBytes/sec, 320x240, Sorenson Video
100 KBytes/sec, 40x30, uncompressed
Following is a brief discussion of some of the more interesting codecs. For a much more
comprehensive list, see
This is easily the most widely used video codec today. Introduced about five years ago, it
is available for nearly every architecture and platform. Its popularity stems from its low
CPU requirements: Cinepak can easily accommodate playback from a 486. On a good day, a 386
can even pull it off.
Cinepak's "sweet spot" is 2x CD-ROM video, typically 320x240 at 15fps, around
180 KBytes/sec. Below about 40 KBytes/sec, it pretty much falls apart. And because it
won't exceed about 10:1 compression, it won't take advantage of high data rates.
The downside to Cinepak is its rather mediocre image quality. Pixelization is quite
noticeable, and any clips look pretty "chunky." In addition, color saturation
tends to degrade.
The 3.x version of Indeo is quite similar to Cinepak. It also plays on low-end systems,
and has similar image quality. It often has a bit of an edge in "talking heads"
video, but tends to introduce more color shift.
Indeo 4.x and 5.x are known as "Indeo Video Interactive." They are similar to
MPEG in terms of image quality and CPU requirements. They also support a range of advanced
- video overlay
- real-time video adjustment (brightness, contrast)
Indeo Video Interactive is not yet available cross-platform.
Eidos has taken their formerly proprietary Escape video technology (used in games like Tomb
Raider), and made it available for QuickTime.
Escape provides excellent image quality for CD-ROM titles which are aimed at 4x CD-ROM. Its
CPU requirements are somewhat lower than MPEG.
Sorenson Video (available Fall '97)
There has been a long-standing desire for a codec to replace Cinepak. While Cinepak's
low-end performance is admirable, its image quality leaves much to be desired. Sorenson
Video makes a pretty impressive replacement: like Cinepak, it plays on a 486... but the
image quality is dramatically better.
This codec is one of the few that works equally well for CD-ROM and WWW. Typical CD-ROM
files are 320x240, 30fps, at 100 to 200 KBytes/sec. A "temporal scalability"
feature allows slower computers to skip half the frames if necessary, resulting in 15fps
on a 486 and 30fps on a Pentium.
Sorenson Video can achieve surprisingly high compression ratios on many video clips. For
example, a 320x240x15fps "talking head" video generally looks excellent at 20 KBps,
which would allow a single CD-ROM to store over 9 hours of material.
Tools and Techniques for Video Compression
Although every step in the process affects the quality of your CD-ROM video, the compression
process itself plays a unique role. There are many decisions to be made which are very
different from the traditional video process. The three skills we'll focus on:
- Examine your application. There's no such thing as a "perfect"
recipe for optimal video, because no two projects are identical.
- Understand the tradeoffs. You can often give up something in an area
that's not critical to improve an area that is.
- Use the tools effectively. And make sure they're the right tools.
Examine your application
CD-ROM video imposes some limitations. How you deal with them depends on your application.
Keep these questions in mind as you evaluate technologies and plan your project.
The first half of the examination is "What do I want to achieve?"
- Quality. If you're doing a real estate showcase CD, sharp image quality
is absolutely critical. If you're doing 5 hours of corporate talks, it may not be.
- Dimensions. 320x240 is the standard at this point. Everyone wants
full-screen, but is has its own set of issues. In some cases, even smaller sizes are
- Frame rate. Is 30fps really necessary? How about 15?
- Amount of video. How many minutes do you want to get on there?
- Other media. It's not always just audio and video. What else do you
want to do?
The second half is "What are my constraints?"
- Available space. Do you have the whole CD for video, or is half of it
taken up by stills? Can you use more than one disc?
- Required platforms. Windows, MacOS, both (half the consumer titles are
hybrid), something else?
- Minimum playback system. If you're doing a game, the marketing
department will probably have some pretty specific ideas about which machines it needs
to run on.
- Budget. We all have them, but we don't all have the same one.
There are three big ones. You almost always have harder requirements in one area or
another, though it's always hard to give anything up.
- Required platform. The more CPU power you can rely on, the more options
you have. And the less people there are who can use your title.
- Data rates. Throwing more data at the video will almost always make it
look better. Of course, you won't get as much on the disc.
- Quality. Sure, you want it to look good. But is spatial quality (sharp
image), temporal quality (smooth motion), or large image size more important?
Picking the minimum required platform may have the most impact of any decision. It will
establish which technologies are available to you, and what you can expect of your runtime
environment. The initial tendency is to say "Well, everyone's got at least a Pentium
133 these days." Don't count on it... most title developers look back 2-4 years. The
same store survey I mentioned earlier turned up some interesting stats for recommended
Admittedly, you can expect the base systems to get faster over time, and a title released
next year will encounter a different mix of systems. But it's been a while since the 486
reigned, and it's still got a strong impact on development. If you're going to require a
Pentium, think twice before requiring a P166!
As mentioned above, increasing the data rate can improve your video quality dramatically.
But it's also more demanding of the playback machine, and chews up the CD faster. Also,
keep in mind that most systems with 2x CD-ROMs don't really handle video at the full data
rate. The most common data rate today is 180 KBytes/sec, with a 2x CD-ROM drive required.
The chart below shows data rates versus amount of material stored on a 650 MByte CD-ROM.
The dark green area is the most common range of data rates today.
Video compression tools
I continue to be amazed by the number of digital video producers who are painstakingly
careful at every step in the process, and then all but ignore compression.
A large number of title developers use their editing tool (such as Adobe Premiere) to
compress their video. While this will indeed work, it is certainly not the optimal approach
in terms of quality or efficiency. The range of options and issues involved in video
compression for CD-ROM far exceeds the scope of a general-purpose editing application.
One of the first specialized desktop video compression tools was Apple's MovieShop.
Introduced to support the then-fledgling QuickTime format, it provides a wider range of
compression-specific features. However, it lacks many important features, such as image
preprocessing and audio compression. And the fact that it tends to crash all the time is
kind of annoying. MovieShop was never intended to be a widely-used product, and has not
been supported or updated for several years.
The de facto industry standard tool for desktop video compression at this point is Media
Cleaner Pro. (Okay, I'm biased. But those are MacUser's words, not just mine.) It
- support for all QuickTime video and audio codecs (as well as several WWW
- a wide range of preprocessing filters, including high-quality scaling
and adaptive noise reduction
- batch processing
- 30-70% faster processing than Adobe Premiere
- a wizard to help beginners choose the best settings
- ...and a whole lot more
Rather than go on with a whole lot more depth, I'll direct you to the information on
Terran's web site, at
There are a wide range of technologies and approaches from which to choose when creating
video for CD-ROM. Getting the best possible results depends on making informed decisions
and preserving quality at every step of the process.
Hopefully I've been able to help you become more of an expert on CD-ROM video. Now go out
and make some killer movies!