We can use a box both as an object and a bounding volume. Kay and Kayjia developed a method based on "slabs" where a slab is the space between two parallel planes. So the intersection of a set of slabs defines a bounding volume or a box.

The method looks at the intersection of each pair of slabs by the ray. It finds tfar and tnear for each pair of slabs. If the overall largest tnear value i.e,. intersection with the near slab, is greater than the smallest tfar value (intersection with far slab) then the ray misses the box, else it hits the box. We can use as the simplest bounding volume the intersection of the sets of two parallel planes where each set has normals along the X, Y, or Z axes.

We will define the box by two coordinates: the box's minimum extent Bl = [ Xl Yl Zl ] and the box's maximum extent Bh = [ Xh Yh Zh ]

The Ray is defined as before in terms of Ro, Rd Then the algorithm is as follows:

set Tnear = - infinity, Tfar = infinity

For each pair of planes P associated with
X, Y, and Z do:

(example using X planes)

if direction Xd = 0 then the ray is parallel to the X planes, so

if origin Xo is not between the slabs ( Xo < Xl or Xo > Xh)
then return false

else, if the ray is not parallel to the plane then

begin

compute the intersection distance of the planes

T1 = (Xl - Xo) / Xd

T2 = (Xh - Xo) / Xd

If T1 > T2 swap (T1, T2) /* since T1 intersection with near
plane */

If T1 > Tnear set Tnear =T1 /* want largest Tnear */

If T2 < Tfar set Tfar="T2" /* want smallest Tfar */

If Tnear > Tfar box is missed so return false

If Tfar < 0 box is behind ray return false end

end of for loop If Box survived all above tests, return true with
intersection point Tnear and exit point Tfar.

Example: Figure (left)

set tnear = -infinity, tfar = infinity For X planes Ray not parallel Compute intersection T1 <- Tx1, T2 <- Tx2

T2 > T1 so no swap T1 > Tnear so Tnear <-- T1 (Tx1) T2 < T far so Tfar <-- Tx2 Tnear < Tfar and Tfar > 0 so do Y planes Y planes Ray not parallel Compute intersection T1 <-- Ty1, T2 <-- Ty2 T1 < Ty2 so no swap T1 not > Tnear so no change T2 < Tfar, so Tfar = T2(Ty2) Tnear > Tfar -> therefore return false and done Second example from figure (right) set tnear = -infinity, tfar = infinity X planes not parallel t1 <- tx1, t2 <- tx2 If t1 < t2 so no swap; t1 > tnear so tnear <- t1 ; t2 < tfar so tfar <- t2; If tnear < tfar so OK; If tfar < 0 so OK; now do Y planes not parallel t1 <- ty1, t2 <- ty2 t1 < t2 so no swap; t1 < tnear so no change; t2 < tfar so tfar <- t2; tnear > tfar ? no tfar < 0 ? no Thus, return true with intersection point = tnear = tx1;

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