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  Reports from SIGGRAPH 2001

Interactive Geometric Computations Using Graphics

Introduction
As the performance and programmability of graphics processing units (or GPUs) increases, the GPU begins to appear more like a general processing unit or a coprocessor to the CPU, running in parallel with it. Future generations of graphics hardware will likely make the graphics pipeline—once a fixed-function series of steps designed with the sole purpose of rendering triangles to the display—resemble even more a general programmable stream processor. Consider all the computational power a GPU provides. Rich in highly pipelined computational units, the GPU provides an efficient streaming model of computation. Furthermore, GPUs have very high memory bandwidth, able to access multiple gigabytes of memory per second. Yet on the other hand, the nature of the graphics rendering pipeline means that GPUs process data in relative isolation: typically a single vertex enters the pipeline with its associated data and is processed independently, for the most part, from the vertices that follows. In addition, GPUs are largely hardwired to run a single highly specialized pipeline as fast as possible; though parts of the pipeline can be programmed, there is no sense of control flow as there is in a CPU. The only way to simulate control flow, or decision-making, is to make multiple rendering passes, where the current pass uses buffer data (typically stencil buffer) generated in a previous pass.

Course Highlights
In their course entitled “Interactive Geometric Computations Using Graphics Hardware”, Dinesh Manocha of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Michael Doggett of ATI Technologies Inc., Ned Greene and Mark Kilgard of NVIDIA Corporation, Ming C. Lin and Dinesh Manocha of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Shankar Krishnan of AT&T Labs presented their ideas and contributions on the use of graphics hardware to perform interactive geometric computations. The course aimed to demonstrate applications in such areas as visibility, collision detection, shadow volumes, and problems involving the use of generalized voronoi diagrams.

Dinesh Manocha explained how graphics hardware could be used in a conceptually simple way (that is also easy to implement) to calculate an approximation of a generalized voronoi diagram.

In brief, a voronoi diagram consists of primitives and cell regions. Primitives may be line segments, curve segments, or points (for simplicity, only points will be considered here). Consider a set of five point primitives, labeled A through E, on a plane. Now consider a region around primitive A such that every point within that region is closer to
primitive A than any of the other four primitives. This region forms a voronoi cell around primitive A. Now consider the region around primitive B such that every point in that region is closer to primitive B than any other primitive—and so on. Note that there will be points on the plane that are as close to one primitive as to another primitive (or more than one other primitive). These points form the border between the voronoi cells. Voronoi diagrams have a variety of applications including motion planning, medial axis computation, and non-photorealistic rendering.

Note that because graphics hardware is involved—with its inherent limitations on the accuracy of computations due to the precision of the values supported in the graphics pipeline—, only approximations of the solutions to any problem can be found. In the problem of generating a voronoi diagram for a set of primitives, the approximation comes from the fact that any image generated in a GPU’s framebuffer is, by the very nature of rasterized graphics, pixilated. The brute-force algorithm to find the voronoi diagram based on a set of primitives is simple but ineffective: for each point (or pixel, in the graphics hardware approximation) in the plane, determine the distance to each primitive and identify the closest one. Then, color that pixel with a color that is unique to its closest primitive, thereby forming voronoi cells. Pixels that are equidistant to two or more primitives may be colored black to represent the boundary of the voronoi cells.

Dinesh Manocha and Ming Lin described an old yet efficient method for approximating voronoi diagrams that ports well to graphics hardware. Notice that if the apex of a right circular cone is aligned with every point primitive in the plane, the projection of the orthographic projections (or a “birds eye view”) of the cone intersections onto the plane form the boundaries of the voronoi cells, and the projected cones themselves form the interior of the cells. Furthermore, if preserved, the depth value (the distance from the primitive point to the cone) at each pixel in the plane is proportional to the distance from that pixel to its closest primitive. The University of North Carolina group’s new approach to the same problem involves distance functions. Unlike the brute-force method, this approach avoids per-pixel distance evaluation by coarsely point-sampling the distance function in a region near the primitive, in order to generate a polygonal mesh approximation that will render much faster on the graphics hardware. Among the group’s most important contributions are the specialized algorithms to efficiently construct such distance meshes for various 2D primitives (recall that these can include not only points, but line segments and curves also).

Other problems and their graphics hardware solutions presented in the course included shadow volumes, digital geometry processing, and visibility culling.

 

Papers coverage:

Images and Video

 

Courses started at 8:30AM on SUNDAY!!! And they continued into Wednesday.

 

SIGGRAPH 2002 Courses Page

Photos from SIGGRAPH 2002
 

 

This page is maintained by
Jan Hardenbergh
jch@siggraph.org
All photos you see in the 2002 reports are due to a generous loan of Cybershot digital cameras from SONY